Saturday, May 23, 2020
The following is an editorial from the HearstÃ Newspapers, written by Arthur Brisbane. Its not dated, but it was probably written about 1917.Ã Arthur Brisbanes syndicated column was widely read. He became editor of the New York Evening Journal in 1897, the Chicago Herald and Examiner in 1918, and the New York Mirror in the 1920s.Ã His Ã¢â¬â¹grandson, also named Arthur Brisbane, became public editor of the New York Times in 2010, leaving in 2012. In this country and throughout the world women progress toward the full possession of the ballot, and toward equality with men in educational facilities. In one State after another women are beginning to practice law, they are obtaining new suffrage rights, they flock to newly opened schools and colleges. In England and Scotland, but a few years ago, only a few men in the population were allowed to vote--money was the requisite quality. Today, in those countries, women vote at county elections, and in many cases at municipal elections. In Utah, Colorado and Idaho women as voters have the same rights as men. They have certain rights as voters in nine other States. In the great Commonwealth of New Zealand, so far ahead of all the rest of the world in humanity and social progress, the wife votes absolutely as her husband does. The woman who votes becomes an important factor in life, for a double reason. In the first place, when a woman votes the candidate must take care that his conduct and record meet with a good womans approval, and this makes better men of the candidates. In the second place, and far more important, is this reason: When women shall vote, the political influence of the good men in the community will be greatly increased. There is no doubt whatever that women, in their voting, will be influenced by the men whom they know. But there is also no doubt that they will be influenced by the GOOD men whom they know. Men can deceive each other much more easily than they can deceive women -- the latter being providentially provided with the X-ray of intuitional perception. The blustering politician, preaching what he does not practice, may hold forth on the street corner or in a saloon, and influence the votes of others as worthless as himself. But among women, his home life will more than offset his political influence. The bad husband may occasionally get the vote of a deluded or frightened wife, but he will surely lose the votes of the wives and daughters next door. Voting by women will improve humanity because IT WILL COMPEL MEN TO SEEK AND EARN THE APPROVAL OF WOMEN. Our social system improves in proportion as the men in it are influenced by its good women. As for the education of women, it would seem unnecessary to urge its value upon even the stupidest of creatures. Yet it is a fact that the importance of thorough education of girls is still doubted -- usually, of course, by men with deficient education of their own and an elaborate sense of their own importance and superiority. Mary Lyon, whose noble efforts established Mount Holyoke College, and spread the idea of higher education for women throughout the world, put the case of womens education in a nutshell. She said: I think it less essential that the farmers and mechanics should be educated than that their wives, the mothers of their children, should be. The education of a girl is important chiefly because it means the educating of a future mother. Whose brain but the mothers inspires and directs the son in the early years when knowledge is most easily absorbed and permanently retained? If you find in history a man whose success is based on intellectual equipment, you find almost invariably that his mother was exceptionally fortunate in her opportunities for education. Well educated women are essential to humanity. They insure abler men in the future, and incidentally, they make the ignorant man feel ashamed of himself in the present. This editorial is a good summation of the views expressed by Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, and other Suffragettes of the day.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(194) " All the confidential information about the children/ families are kept/ locked in the main office and only authorised persons can have access to it and only if necessary, to help the children\." Unit 5 Communication and professional skills within child care and education D1/ D2 Select four aspects of professional practice and give reasons why each chosen aspect is essential and who this may affect. There are many aspects of professional practice, these aspects are very important to be followed. Working in partnership with health care and other professionals: working closely with the other professionals in the setting is important for the safety of the children. We will write a custom essay sample on Communication and Professional Skills or any similar topic only for you Order Now Communicating about the needs of the children will help us to help the children with their development and help us to keep track of their developmentÃ¢â¬â¢s stage. Also working as a team being consistent about the decisions made will give the children a good role model and routine, otherwise children can get very confuses and lost. Respecting confidentiality policy is very important to keep children safe, passing information to the right person, keeping information safe/locked, using it only when necessary, and aiming to help the child. Information misused can cause a great trouble to the child and the adult; therefore, we practitioners need to make sure all information are kept safe and confidential. Attitudes to work is about being a good role model, it is a big part of educating children, we must always remember that, children will repeat everything that we do or say. As adults and practitioners it is important to be a good role model, children also learn copying us, learn to talk, to posture their selves, to dress up, to eat, to express their selves. Being a good role model is about dressing up appropriately for the job, having a good posture, speaking clear (not swearing, not shouting), respecting the children and the team we work with. Good time keeping and attendance is very important for the smooth running in the setting, also to keep childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s routine and follow the plans for activities. To be on time, it is important to make sure you live home with time enough to be at work on time, if necessary live five minutes earlier. It is better to be earlier than later. D3 Ã¢â¬â Include examples of how you are developing the knowledge or skills that will improve each selected aspect of professional practice During lunch time children are very likely to hurt their selves, knowing who the first-aider person are and where they are is very useful and helpful, because whenever there is a child with problem I can go straight to them and help the child. I have being learning to observe the children and to communicate with health carers and other professionals, how to posture myself and how to respond to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s misbehave. There are some children with learning difficulties in my classroom, and to protect them the school has a system, which separates the children by table colours and we know that, there is an specific colour for that special needs table and it is done this way to protect the children from being bullied by other children or abused in any way. It is a way of keeping information about them confidential, while acknowledging their needs. So I have learned different ways of dealing with information and still keeping it confidential. I have being learning how to posture myself around the children and how to respond to them when they misbehave. At this stage I have learned how to listen to them, the importance of PIN No: 10/681015 them listening to me, the use of appropriate language, to look at after my posture when I talk to them. They look at me and they may want to be like me, for that reason it is important that I am a good role model for them, having a good attitude to work. During my work placement I have learned to be a good time keeper, I have improved my time, waking up earlier, going to bed as earlier as possible to get a good rest, to prepare my lunch the night before, to organise what I am earing the night before. Children do notice when we are late and it can affect them, as the other professionals in the setting. There are always ways of making sure we are on time. D4 Ã¢â¬â Include examples of your effective communication with children and with parents I have helped a child to do her maths exercise, she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to do it, so I told her that her parents would not be very happy if she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do her work and that she would want to see them happy. She thought for a moment and finished her exercise in two minutes. When communicating with parents I know that I must be respectful, sensitive to their feelings, because some parents may be more difficult to deal with and it is difficult for them to hear that their children is not doing as good as the other children or have some learning difficulties or are special needs children. In the nursery before there was an 18 months little girl, she was really good, helpful, smart, friendly; she was always playing nicely with the other children and smiling. One day on the way out IÃ¢â¬â¢ve met her mum and told her that her child was really good and that she was very kind, smart, and helpful. I told her about her development and how good she was; her mum was very happy and was very thankful to me and proud of her daughter. When I communicate with children I get down to their level, look at them in the eyes, listen to them carefully, speak slowly and clear, give them the chance to talk and I am very patient with them. D5 Ã¢â¬â Provide evidence to show how you maintain confidentiality in work with children and parents The way we maintain confidentiality in the present setting, where I work at the moment, is following the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s policies and procedures. All the confidential information about the children/ families are kept/ locked in the main office and only authorised persons can have access to it and only if necessary, to help the children. You read "Communication and Professional Skills" in category "Papers" If there is a need to talk to the family or another professional about a childÃ¢â¬â¢s problem, it is crucial that the persons involved go to a private room, where they can speak privately, keeping the conversation confidential. All observations that are written about the children must be kept safe/ locked and only shared with parents/ families, supervisors, or health care professionals (if needed). To protect the children, I shall always refer to my supervisor and ask how to proceed if there is any sign of abuse or if I notice any unusual behave about the children. D6 Ã¢â¬â Provide evidence of ways that you are preparing for employment and finding information about professional development The way I am preparing for employment is developing my skills in child care through out the course, learning and developing my knowledge, also acquiring experience at the work placement. I am working on my Curriculum Vitae, making it presentable, and putting all the information about my experience. I am looking on the internet to find out about agencies and job offers, to find out about settings, salary rate, opportunities. I am doing researches about the settings, the history of the setting, how they work, if it is registered with offstead, to make sure I will be working within a good practice. I am also looking at news papers and magazines. We had an employment agency, specialised in child care, which came to the college to talk to us about the opportunities and offered us to register with them and they will help us to find a job in child care, I will be registering myself with this agency, as they seem to be really good and have good job offers. To increase my career opportunities I am intending to continue my studies in child care, I am looking into studying level 3 in child care, because I know it will help me to enhance my opportunities. D7 Ã¢â¬â Show an understanding of diversity and inclusive practice An inclusive approach to work with children means that you are able to meet and understand the needs of each child. Every child needs some individual time and attention, and no child should become a favourite within the setting. An inclusive approach involves thinking about the way in which each child feels valued and has a feeling of belonging. You will need to make sure that your interactions with every child are positive and that you consciously think about each child to make sure that they are not left out. Ã¢â¬ (Cache level 2, Child care and education, Tassoni. P, page 216). When working in partnership with health care and other professionals, to respect diversity and follow inclusive practice it is very important to respect the child and the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s background; it is very important to be fair and non judgemental and to keep information confidential. If a child has any kind of illness, special needs, suffering any kind of abuse, to protect the child this information must be shared only with the people involved to help the child and nobody else, it is also important to treat the child as much as normal as possible, so the child will not feel left out. In the case of having problematic parents/ families, we need to be very discreet and if needed talk to the parents/families, making sure we go to a private place, where the conversation can be private. It is very important to follow the policies and procedures equally with all children and parents/ families to make sure they feel treated the same and hopefully be able to help them. It is very important to make sure that children with disabilities or learning difficulties are involved in the activities, providing suitable resources for their needs and treating them as equally as possible to the other children. It is important to make sure that settings will provide diverse equipment, materials, to reflect all religions, cultures and backgrounds, to make all children and family feel comfortable when coming to the settings. Another way to show good practice is being a good role model, treating all the other professionals with respect and equally; treating children and families all the same, despite their background, religion, culture, wealth or health. To be a good role model we should not discriminate anyone, children will copy us and hopefully learn to not discriminate anyone. C1- Explain how your developing knowledge or skills in each selected aspect will improve your professional practice I have being learning throughout this course the importance of working in partnership with health care, parents and other professionals. Developing this knowledge helps me to improve my professional practice in communicating well with children, parents and staff, building a good relationship with them based on respect within the setting and professionalism. Having acquired the knowledge about confidentiality, I now understand how to maintain confidentiality and why it is important. I have learned about my settingÃ¢â¬â¢s confidentiality policy and I observe the other staff, so I know what to do and I am improving myself more and more. Respecting the policies and following the procedures of the setting make me aware of my responsibilities for protecting children, parents and other team members, improving in this way my professional practice. Learning about been a good role model helps me to be a positive role model around the children, because they will learn from the things I say and do. When they see me being polite, they may want to behave the same way, so this way I will be helping them to learn about manners and being good. Time keeping is very important in every moment of our lives, but when working with children it is essential to be a good time keeper, this way the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s routine wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be disturbed. Been on time is also related to be a good role model. B1 Ã¢â¬â Explain why the examples of communication with children and parents were effective Ã¢â¬â When I started to do an exercise with the child I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure of what to do and I was getting very frustrated because she wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do it. When I had the idea of talking about her parents been proud of her it made her do the exercises very quick and for that reason I believe my communication was very effective and gave me a result, which was to get the child to do her work. In this case my communication was very effective because IÃ¢â¬â¢ve managed to get the child to do her work. I believe that the childÃ¢â¬â¢s mother was very pleased to hear how well her child was doing and she felt very positive about her childÃ¢â¬â¢s development and also felt that she could count on us at the nursery to share information about her childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. For that reason I am confident about the effectiveness of my communication with this mother. In this case It was very ef fective, because I communicated to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, giving her information and making her aware of her childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. B2 Ã¢â¬â Explain the importance of maintaining confidentiality when working with children and parents It is very important to maintain confidentiality to protect children and keep them safe and their families. As a practitioner I have the responsibility to keep the information safe/ confidential, it is important to build a trustworthy relationship with the family, it shows that I am respecting the policies and procedures of the setting. It is also important to maintain the rights of the children and the family. Disclosure of confidential information can cause lots of distress to the child, family, myself and other team worker. Confidentiality is important because in the setting we may have access to some personal information related to families, which if disclosed may put the child in danger, causing harm or cause distress to the family. A Ã¢â¬â Explain the reasons for preparing for employment and for finding information about professional development The way I am preparing for employment is making sure that I am learning as much as I can throughout my course and looking into further development, as in going to level 3 in child care. I am working on my CV, to make it presentable and to give the right information to the employers. I am researching the internet to find out what employers are looking for, to make sure I will have the right answer when going for an interview. It is important to prepare myself, because on this way I will have the right tools to go for an interview and a better chance to get a good/ suitable job. It is important to keep myself informed about new policies or any changes that may happen within the early years foundation guide to make sure I am not staying behind as a professional as it may also affect the children and the setting, where I am working. I want to do level 3 in child care, so it will help me to further develop my skills about child care, giving me the ability to better help children with their development and give my best to them as a professional and also to enhance my job opportunities. Once I am employed I intend to look into other courses as first aid, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s safeguard, health and safety, aiming to improve and get confidence to deal with any unexpected situation. Ã¢â¬Å"Professional development is the process by which a person maintains the quality and relevance of professional services throughout his/her working life. It has been defined by the Institute for Continuing Professional Development as: Ã¢â¬ËThe systematic maintenance, improvement and broadening of knowledge and the development of personal qualities necessary for the education of professional and technical duties throughout the practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s working life. Ã¢â¬Ë It follows that we have an ethical responsibility as professiona to continue our professional development throughout our careers. Professional development is not a product, devised by training providers and academic institutions. It is a mindset, a habit to acquire. Professional development requires self-directed, independent learning. It also demands an active rather than passive approach to learning. It differs from other forms of learning because it requires us to decide that needs to be learned or un-learned, how to learn it, and how to test and assess our learning. Ã¢â¬ (http://www. materials. ac. uk/guides/developing. asp) A* Ã¢â¬â Reflect on why it is important to review your communication and professional skills. In my opinion it is important to be a reflective practitioner to be able to offer a good care for children, keeping them safe, giving them suitable resources for their development on this way improving education. A good way to follow this route is to continuously review and evaluate my skills, improving my knowledge, reading, studying, and learning about new challenges and ways of helping childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Reviewing the way I communicate is important to make sure I am giving the right message and listening to others clearly, because if I donÃ¢â¬â¢t communicate properly it may cause lots of distress. Consulting other professionals, sharing experience will help us all to improve the quality of the setting and the way children are learning and also help us to improve ourselves. It is important to review my actions, when good, how I made it good and what were the results; if bad, what did I do wrong, how can I improve, always aiming to further develop my skills to benefit children. I am aware of the aspects that I need to improve and I must keep studying to improve this aspects as English and maths and I will further develop this skills to be able to better help children. When setting targets and plans it is important to be realistic about my capacities and knowledge, otherwise I may end up not doing my work properly and getting frustrated, which can seriously affect my work, children and other professionals. Unit 2 Relate to D1/D2 and D3 *Equality and diversity Ã¢â¬ ¢ All children have a need to develop, which is helped by exploring and discovering the people and things around them. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Some childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development may be at risk, for example: o children who are disabled and those with special educational needs o those from socially excluded families, such as the homeless or those who live with a parent who is disabled or has a mental illness o Children from traveler communities, refugees or asylum seekers and those from diverse linguistic backgrounds. All children are entitled to enjoy a full life in conditions which will help them take part in society and develop as an individual, with their own cultural and spiritual beliefs. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Practitioners ensure that their own knowledge about different cultural groups is up-to-date and consider their own attitudes to people who are different from themselves. Ã¢â¬ ¢ All children have an equal right to be listened to and valued in t he setting. Diversity is the difference between cultures, religion, and background. It is important to look at it in a positive way to help children to understand equality, to avoid discrimination and to allow every childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. It is very important that every setting provides a non stereotypical, anti-bias environment, with equipments, material, books, dressing up clothes, food, posters, all from different religions, culture, and color and positively promote diversity. Where, every child can see a bit of their selves, culture and feel welcomed and not discriminated. PIN No: 10/681015 Centre No: 383. 000 Unit 5 Communication and professional skills within child care and education D8 Ã¢â¬â References and Bibliography Bibliography: Child care and Education Tassoni Penny Heinamman, 2007 Harlow Website: http://www. nidos. org. uk/downloads/Confidentialitypolicy. pdf http://www. materials. ac. uk/guides/developing. asp [pic] How to cite Communication and Professional Skills, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Corporate Governance and its importance. Answer: Introduction In view of Marc Palker (2016), who is the Principal at MPP Associates and also is the IMA Chair of the Global Board of Directors, accountants are the gatekeepers of financial reporting and governance. Through the effective communication of the corporate governance structures in the entire organization, particularly across its hierarchy levels, the organizations can easily facilitate ethical and more accurate information. When the businesses operate in a corporate umbrella, a number of business basics are presided by the results and practices of accounting. Accounting is the thing which helps the companies in tracking their income and expenditure and in establishing the correct picture of the entire financial status. Thus, the accounting helps the companies in running their operations in a smooth manner, which have legal, practical and ethical basis, and also helps in laying down the foundation stone towards the continues success and growth (Ray, 2018). However, the blunders of the recent past, particularly the scandals which took place in HealthSouth, Enron, WorldCom and Tyco are the examples where the role of accounting is misused and the ultimate loss is to be dealt by the stakeholders. The widespread failures in the financial reporting have been the key blame holder over the feeble internal controls. The investors lost their faith and the ultimate impact was seen on the stock market plummeting (Browning Weil, 2002). This discussion is focused on highlighting what exactly corporate governance is and the importance it holds. The role and the professional duties which have to be properly discharged by the accountants to maintain the good governance practices would also be highlighted, along with the lack of ethical behaviour of these individuals resulting in reporting failures. The discussion, before concluding, would highlight the manner in which the ethical issues impact the public interest. Corporate governance and its importance Corporate governance, as a term, can be defined from two perspectives, i.e., the narrow and the broad one. From the narrow perspective, corporate governance is related to the relationship present between the directors, varied stakeholders and corporate managers. When the broad perspective of corporate governance is looked at, it covers the combination of listing rules, voluntary private sector practices which allow the firm to attract capital, generate profit, meeting legal and societal expectations, perform efficiently, laws, and regulations (Gregory Simms, 2005). As per Okeahalam and Akinboade (2003), corporate governance refers to the public and private institutions which include accepted business practices, laws and regulations, which govern the relationship between entrepreneurs and corporate managers in market economy on one hand, and the ones who invest in the resources of the companies on the other hand. It is related to the creation of a balance in between the social and ec onomic objectives, and in between the community and individual objectives, where the use of resources is encouraged, accountability in using stewardship and powers, and aligning of the interests of the different stakeholders is undertaken. Corporate governance is a concept which is gaining a lot of attention, due to the events which transpired in the recent history. It is a mechanism through which the stakeholders of the company are able to exercise control on the corporate managers and are also able to provide an overall direction to the company, particularly in such a manner that the interests of the stakeholders are protected (Larcker Tayan, 2015). When such happens, the company is able to operate in a more responsible and profitable manner; the relations of the company are enhanced with the different stakeholder groups including suppliers, employees, policyholders, society at large, and most importantly, the shareholders; the company starts thinking long term; the quality of the executive and that of the non executive directors is improved, there is proper monitoring of executive management to protect the interest of the shareholders; and the informational needs of all of the stakeholders are properly fulfilled. I n this setting, the role of the accountant is the maintenance of equilibrium in between the different components of the system, for making certain that the accounting and the auditing tools play the requisite governance role, and that the good governance procedure pillars are properly placed (Tricker, 2015). Role and professional duties of accountants When it comes to the question on what exactly is done by the accountants, the reply is that they act as the independent auditors and the tax agents. The role which is performed by the accountants is often not understood properly and is also forgotten. The significance of the role of accountants in the business scenario in context of ensuring that the quality of financial reporting is upheld cannot be emphasized enough. The accountants often take centre stage in safeguarding the financial reportings integrity. The quality of financial reporting is to be defended by the professional accountants at the very source, where the figures and numbers are born. The accountants play a key role in making contributions towards the overall progress and the stability in society (Jeffrey, 2011). A competent account is deemed as an invaluable asset in the business and an inquiring mind is employed by the accountants to the work based on their knowledge of the financials of the company. They make use of their intimate understanding of the company and the skills, along with of the environment in which they operate. The accountants basically ask the challenging questions. They adopt an objective and a pragmatic approach for solving the problems. This becomes a very valuable asset for the management of any company. The accountants in the business helps in corporate strategy where the advice is provided and the businesses are helped in reducing the costs, in mitigating the risks and in improving the top line. The role of the accountants includes the one as the board directors, where they govern the organization in terms of the approval of annual budgets and the accounting to the stakeholders for the performance of the company. They also appoint the chief executive, along with dete rmining the compensation of the management. In their role as internal auditors, they provide independent assurance to the management regarding the risk management of the company, its internal control processes and the governance in an effective manner. As the chief financial officers, they have the oversight on all matters which relate to the financial health of the company. Included in this is the creation and driving of the strategic direction of the business to create, analyse and communicate the financial information (Jui Wong, 2013). The basic statutory duty of the accounts is to report to the shareholders on the annual accounts of the company being prepared in a proper manner, to give a true and fair view, and on the report of director being consistent with the accounts; and also of the variance in these (ECGI, 2018). In the multifaceted role of the accountants, it is their duty towards the public to protect their interest. This is due to the fact that the accountants are given the privileged position in the society and amongst the different roles given to the accountants; the theme continues to protect the public interest. This requires maintenance of high standards but also in helping the company to act in an ethical manner. The accountants would not be able to get the name of being the protectors where the public interest is not on them. In the very basic manner, the confidence in financial data, which the accountants produce, creates the roots of public value and trust. Accountants are also faced with compet ing demands which makes it crucial for them to balance these demands and perform their roles ethically. By following the ethical codes of accountants, these individuals are compelled to work in a manner where their duty of protecting public interest is met (Jui Wong, 2013). Lack of ethical behaviour of accountants The requirement for good corporate governance stems from the need of protecting and enhancing the value of shareholders, in meeting the obligations of the company to the employees and for securing the interests of the stakeholders present in the corporate environment. The main objective is to protect against such abuses which could result in financial crisis and corporate scandals which poses a threat to the corporate relations in the last decade. There is a lack of ethical behaviour in the accountants which results in the reporting failures (Plessis, Hargovan Harris, 2018). There are a number of reasons for the ethical lapses in the corporate scenario by the accountants. The first one is the self interest metamorphosing in selfishness and greed, where the focus shifts towards the short terms profit maximization in place of long term. There is also the stunted moral development on part of management and corporate officials, where the key purpose of the business becomes to earn more for the shareholders, thereby legitimizing any action which is undertaken to get to that objective. There are also such instances where the individuals equate the moral behaviour with the legal one, and disregard the fact certain actions are not unlawful but immoral. At times, the push to act in an unethical manner comes from the client where the demands of client wither the individual responsibility (Osisioma, 2013). Corporate reporting is deemed amongst the most significant functions which the companies need to take care of, and also require the adherence to higher code of ethical behaviour. This is particularly true for the public entities in which the reports of company helps in determining the decision of the shareholders in the financial instruments and financial decisions of the company. These statements help the users who are not in such a position where the entity could be required to form a report which suits the information requirements. These statements help the users in making rational credit decisions, investments and the other decisions. Even though the users of financial statements assume to be judicious in business, yet they do not have the full insight over the actual affairs of the company. This puts the reliance on financial reporting practices to make the decisions and judgments, making the role of accounts all the more important. The true and fair statements are taken as the foundation for the decisions and for promoting confidence in the financial reporting. However when unethical reporting is done, major issues are caused in the company, which even have an impact over the economy of the nation (Badshah, 2015). The misadventures and the corporate scandals which caused the global meltdown had far reaching and dramatic implications for the profession. To show the manner in which the reporting failures are caused due to the lack of ethical behaviour of the auditors and accountants can be further illustrated through the famous examples. WorldCom is famous for its accounting failure where the company, from the outside, looked like a strong leader. However, it was later on revealed that the company had been indulged in fraudulent reporting where it stated that it had earned a profit of $3 billion, when it reality it had incurred a $0.5 billion loss. The investigations revealed misstatements of $11 billion (Scharff, 2005). Focusing on the role of auditors and accountants played in this blunder, there was a lack of independence and also of the awareness of Board. The chairman of the audit committee, Max Bobbitt was Ebbers loyal. The members of the audit commit chose to ignore the fraudulent misstatements from 1999 to 2001. The committee, as per the estimates, oversaw $30 billion revenue generating company, which even after meeting for 3-6 hours annually did not raise any issue (Ashraf, 2011). There was a virtual non existence of accounting controls. The committee did not pay heed to the policies, internal controls or the audit programme of the company. Even when Arthur Andersen had defined the company as a maximum risk client, and had told the audit committee regarding the misapplication of the GAAP in case of some of the investments, nothing was done by the committee, which ultimately led to a clean and unqualified opinion being given by Arthur Andersen (Zekany, Braun, Warder, 2004). It is important t hat the committees fulfil their duties by overseeing the internal control structure of the company, and making certain that the company followed the laws, standards and the regulations (Romney Steinbart, 2008). There are a number of other corporate accounting scandals which explains the manner in which the lack of ethical behaviour amongst the auditors and accountants result in reporting failures. The waste management scandal of 1998 in which $1.7 billion were reported in fake earnings is an example. This had the company falsely increasing the time length of depreciation for the assets. The Enron scandal of 2001 is another example, where huge debts were kept off balance sheet and this resulted in the shareholders losing $74 billion, employees losing their job, and investors losing their retirement accounts. The Tyco scandal of 2002 saw stealing of %150 million and inflation of company income by $500 million. Another famous scandal which had a key role of the auditors of the company was Lehman Brothers scandal of 2008. And the recent one in Satyam where the revenue was falsely boosted by $1.5 billion is another scandal where the accountants failed to uphold their professional standards (Acco unting Degree, 2018). Enhancing public interest: ethical issues Leung and Cooper (2005) have highlighted that there are three ethical issues which play a crucial role in maintenance of ethical standards, i.e., the proposal of clients to evade tax, the proposal of the clients to manipulate the financial statements, and the presentation of the financial information in the manner that the users are not deceived. These are the key in enhancing the public interest when it comes to the financial reporting. Though, these issues have technicality in them as they are related to the matters of accounting and financial statement. These issues are deemed as ethical issues due to the conflict which the accountants are faced with in choosing between the needs of the clients and in protecting the public interest. The professional accountants are under an obligation to fulfil the wishes of their clients irrespective of their personal feelings. However, where ethics are not adopted when the accountants are faced with such ethical issues, the faith of the public i n the work of professional accountants would be lost. Further, this would make way for the blunders like WorldCom and Enron. As a result of providing their services to the business community and the general public, the professional accountants are required to conduct their business in a manner which can be best deemed as ethical. This is the reason why the codes have been developed, so that the members can deal with such issues. The greatest concerns of the professionals are in terms of the proposal of the client to evade tax and to manipulate the financial statements. This is the reason why in Australia, the majority of professional accounting bodies adopt Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants, which have been developed by the APESB, i.e., the Accounting Professional and Ethical Standards Board. These help the accountants in protecting from the different ethical dilemmas. Where these ethics are not followed and the work is done by the accountants for personal gain, in the long run, the professionals would be the ultimate losers. This makes it crucial to uphold the standards where the public is assured that the ethical decision would be undertaken; and where the proposals are made by the clients for evading tax, the same would not be followed. These become crucial also for the public to have faith on the financial reporting and to trust the reports created by the professionals. Not doing the same resul ts in incidents like WorldCom and Enron (Bazley, Hancock Robinson, 2014). This is where the role of corporate governance becomes more significant and takes the centre stage. The professional accountants are required to fulfil their roles in the manner where the work is done for the clients and general public and a balance is maintained. In such cases where the accountants are faced with ethical issues, there is a need to give supremacy to the needs of general public, in order to continue the faith in the accountants and their profession. This is the reason why the accountants identified the aforementioned ethical issues are the most significant one. The theme of corporate governance in terms of being honest and working with eternity is crucial for the accountants especially in such cases (Leung Cooper, 2005). Conclusion Thus, based on the discussion carried in the previous segments, it can be concluded that the corporate governance is a concept which holds a lot of significance in the role played by the accountants. The accountants are required to work with integrity and in an honest manner, so that a true and fair financial position is presented. This helps in maintaining the faith of the general public in the investments they make and also in the accounting professionals. Where the incidents like Enron, Satyam, WorldCom, or Lehman Brothers take place, the faith of the people in the accountants and in their profession are lost. This ultimately has an impact over the entire economy. Thus, the role played by accountants is very crucial and there is a high need for the accountants to be ethical in their work. For this purpose, the standards formed by the leading bodies of the nation have to be followed. The reason for putting so much focus of corporate governance on the accountants stems from their ro le and duties in maintenance of the good governance practices. Corporate governance, along with the ethics, helps the accountants in keeping true to their profession and also towards safeguarding the interests of the different stakeholders who put their faith in the accountants. Even when the accountants are faced with ethical issues, which is quite common as per the literature, there is a need to analyse the situation and make the ethical decision, even when it involves declining the proposal of the clients for evading tax, as in the long run, it proves disastrous not only for the clients but for the accountants as well. References Accounting Degree. (2018). The 10 Worst Corporate Accounting Scandals of All Time. Retrieved from: https://www.accounting-degree.org/scandals/ Akinboade, A. O., Okeahalam, C. C. (2003). A review of corporate governance in Africa: Literature, issues and challenges. InA Paper Presented at the Global Corporate Governance Forum, 15, 1-34. Ashraf, J. (2011). The accounting fraud at WorldCom the causes, the characteristics, the consequences, and the lessons learned. HIM 1990-2015. 1107 Badshah, K. (2015). Corporate Reporting Ethics Failure and Corrective Measures. Retrieved from: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/corporate-reporting-ethics-failure-corrective-measures-kamran Bazley, M., Hancock, P., Robinson, P. (2014). Contemporary Accounting: A Strategic Approach for users. Victoria: Cengage Learning Australia. Browning, E. S., Jonathan, W. (2002). Burden of doubt: Stocks take a beating as accounting worries spread beyond Enron, Wall Street Journal, A1. ECGI. (2018). Accountability and audit. Retrieved from: https://www.ecgi.org/codes/documents/hampel28.pdf Gregory, H.J., Simms, M.E. (2005). Corporate Governance: What it is and Why it Matters. In Cattrysse J. Reflections on Corporate Governance and the Role of the Internal Auditor. Roeselare, Belgium: Roularta Media Group. Jeffrey, C. (2011).Research on professional responsibility and ethics in accounting. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing. Jui, L., Wong, J. (2013). Roles and Importance of Professional Accountants in Business. Retrieved from: https://www.ifac.org/news-events/2013-10/roles-and-importance-professional-accountants-business Larcker, D., Tayan, B. (2015).Corporate governance matters: A closer look at organizational choices and their consequences. New York: Pearson Education. Leung, P., Cooper, B. J. (2005). Accountants, ethical issues and the corporate governance context.Australian accounting review,15(35), 79-88. Osisioma, B. C. (2013). Good Corporate Governance: The Role of the Accountant. Retrieved from: https://works.bepress.com/prof_ben_osisioma/10/ Palker, M. (2016). Understanding the Accountants Role in Corporate Governance. Retrieved from: https://www.ifac.org/global-knowledge-gateway/governance/discussion/understanding-accountant-s-role-corporate-governance Plessis, J.J.D., Hargovan, A., Bagaric, M. (2018). Principles of Contemporary Corporate Governance (4th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ray, L. (2018). The Role of Accounting in a Corporate Governance. Retrieved from: https://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/role-accounting-corporate-governance-16067.html Romney, M. B., Steinbart, P. J. (2008). Accounting information systems. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. Scharff, M. M. (2005). WorldCom: A failure of moral and ethical values.Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship,10(3), 35. Tricker, B. (2015).Corporate governance: Principles, policies, and practices (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, USA. Zekany, K., Braun, L., Warder, Z. (2004). Behind closed doors at WorldCom: 2001. Issues in Accounting Education, 19(1), 101-117.
Friday, March 6, 2020
2016 TOEIC Registration and Test Dates 2016 TOEIC Listening and Reading Registration Basics If youre ready to take the TOEIC Listening and Reading, (youve read the documents listed below, practiced and prepared) then you have to register before you can take this 2.5 hour exam. The TOEIC is your key to the future in many cases, so you better read up on these important TOEIC registration facts before you decide to take the plunge.Ã 2016 TOEIC Registration Details You can complete your TOEIC registration online or by filling out a form and mailing it to: In the U.S.: TOEICÃ ® Services America, 1425 Lower Ferry Road, Ewing, NJ 08618 In Puerto Rico: ETS Puerto Rico Office 250 MuÃ ±oz Rivera Avenue, American International Plaza, Hato Rey, PR 00918 For the TOEIC Listening and Reading test, there is no walk-in or standby registration, so be sure to register on time so you dont miss your spot. The deadline to register for a public testing session is always on the Thursday one week before the test at, 5 p.m., Eastern Time. If, for example, youre interested in testing on December 10, 2016, then your registration deadline is on Thursday, December 1.Ã TOEIC Fees: If you take the TOEIC at a public testing center in the U.S., the price is $75 if youd like your scores sent somewhere within the US. If youd like your scores sent outside of the US, the price is $80. If the test is given by your company or organization, the price is set by them so contact your supervisor for pricing info. Fees vary for test-takers outside the U.S. Changed your mind? Dont want to take the TOEIC and want your money back? Refunds are not given if you cancel your test for any reason, unless the test is canceled by the administrators because of low enrollment. So decide ahead of time the best month to take your exam so you dont lose out on the cash because youve had a change of heart.Ã 2016 TOIEC Listening and Reading Test Dates in the U.S. Taking the TOEIC outside of the United States? Youll need to contact your local ETS Preferred Network OfficeÃ to find your local administrations. US testers, here are your test dates: January 16, 2016February 13, 2016March 12, 2016April 9, 2016May 14, 2016June 11, 2016July 9, 2016August 13, 2016September 10, 2016October 8, 2016November 12, 2016December 10, 2016 Ã TOEIC Test Centers: There are a few public TOEIC testing centers across the U.S., but not every state has one and many states only have one or two. In California, for example, there are fifteen testing centers, but New York only has three and Colorado only has one test center. Depending on where you live, you may be driving, or even flying, a while. Across the globe not every country has a public testing center, either, so if youd like to register for the TOEIC, but a center isnt located near you, you can request information from ETS to help you find a way to take the exam near you. Complete your TOEIC Registration Now Must Read Documents Before You Complete Your TOEIC Registration: TOEIC 101 Write a Great TOEIC EssayHow to Make an InferenceHow to Find the Main IdeaHow to Understand Vocabulary Words in Context
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Physical Privacy - Essay Example From this, it is worth noting that utilitarianism and deontology plays an integral role in the physical privacy right issues of employees in a workplace. Therefore, in order to clearly elaborate how the utilitarianism and deontology influences workers in a workplace, our discussion will be based on drug testing. Several concerns have been raised in regards to employees being given drug tests in their places. The main bone of contention arises with the question as to whether using such program would be socially desirable and ethically correct, or would it be an infringement on the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ privacy rights. Normally, the first argument that comes into play is the fact that administering drug tests to employees is related to the job functions, and secondly, the safety of other employees, the employer, as well as the general public (Verstraete, 2011). Several groups of individuals argue that employers violate the privacy rights of employees of when they request, collect or use personal information in a way that is not related to the existing relationship between the employer and the employees (Verstraete, 2011). Therefore, before employers subject its employees to a drug test, then they must prove the relevant need for the test. This is because subjecting employees to drug testing witho ut sound reasoning is subject to flouting federal and state laws. However, it is important for employers to understand that knowing drug usage of their employees is job-relevant information. This is attributed to the fact that a person using drugs can be a huge liability to the employer, themselves, co-workers, as well as the general public. Drug users normally have low productivity compared to the non-drug users (Verstraete, 2011). Additionally, drug users also have high work injuries compared to those who do not use drugs. This implies that the employer will incur high unnecessary costs. These costs can be